Abadan: Oil City Dreams and the Nostalgia for Past Futures in Iran (Part Two) | Rasmus Christian Elling — ABADAN RETOLD

PART TWO: When Iran’s Abadan was Capital of the World by Rasmus Christian Elling Originally published in ABADAN RETOLD This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.   Abadan is special. Or at least, it used to be special. Its urban and social fabric stands out from all other Iranians cities. Its inhabitants…

Abadan in the National Press During the Oil Nationalisation Movement, 1946-51 | Mattin Biglari — ABADAN RETOLD

by Mattin Biglari Originally Published in ABADAN RETOLD This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. Abadan is and always has been the centre of Iran’s oil industry. Curiously, however, relatively few have examined how, beyond economic effects, this centre of oil has been connected to the centre of politics, Tehran. Yet…

Crossing the Lines: the Bahmashir Incident

  ON LINES AND FENCES: LABOUR, COMMUNITY AND VIOLENCE IN AN OIL CITY Rasmus Christian Elling Published in: Urban Violence in the Middle East   On 19 December 1942, two separate episodes of violence led to the Bahmashir Incident. In subsequent reports, the Labour Superintendent recounted that around 2 p.m., three Indian soldiers had gone…

Drawing the Lines: Spatial Politics of Coercion

  ON LINES AND FENCES: LABOUR, COMMUNITY AND VIOLENCE IN AN OIL CITY Rasmus Christian Elling Published in: Urban Violence in the Middle East       The horrible living conditions of most oil workers in the early days of the Concession are a well-known topic.[50] Indeed, the Company’s unwillingness or inability to provide adequate…

Securing Output: Abadan under the Company’s Aegis

War of Clubs: Struggle for Space in Abadan and the 1946 Oil Strike Rasmus Christian Elling, University of Copenhagen Published in: Violence and the City in the Modern Middle East   Abadan’s modern history is inextricably tied to that of the Anglo-Persian— later Anglo-Iranian—Oil Company (henceforth, “the Company”). When oil was struck in Iran in…

Company’s Reserves and Profits

From «Oil Nationalisation and Managerial Disclosure: The Case of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1933-1951» Chapter 4: Profit distribution by the AIOC Author : Neveen Abdelrehim | The university of york Since the 1933 concession, the Iranians had found it difficult to arrive at an assessment for the division of profits[525]. As mentioned earlier in the chapter,…

Taxes and Immunities

From «Oil Nationalisation and Managerial Disclosure: The Case of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1933-1951» Chapter 4: Profit distribution by the AIOC Author : Neveen Abdelrehim | The university of york Iranians were willing to see the payment terms improved because they were dissatisfied with the massive amount of tax paid to the British government[516]. The Memorandum…

Iranian Claims and AIOC Counter claims: Empirical Evidence

From «Oil Nationalisation and Managerial Disclosure: The Case of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1933-1951» Chapter 4: Profit distribution by the AIOC Author : Neveen Abdelrehim | The university of york The 1933 concession and the Supplemental Agreement had a number of key points which proved controversial and resulted in the issuance of Gidel‟s Memorandum. The Memorandum…

The 1933 concession: Claims and Counter Claims

From «Oil Nationalisation and Managerial Disclosure: The Case of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1933-1951» Chapter 4: Profit distribution by the AIOC Author : Neveen Abdelrehim | The university of york In the light of the literature reviewed in chapter 2, the question of distribution of oil income continued to be a major source of rising conflict…

Review of empirical evidence

From «Oil Nationalisation and Managerial Disclosure: The Case of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1933-1951» Chapter 3: Employee relations and Iranianisation Author : Neveen Abdelrehim | The university of york The above discussion has re-considered the claims and counter claims of the AIOC and Iranian representatives in the light of Fraser‟s public and private correspondence. Historical evidence…

Medical Treatment

From «Oil Nationalisation and Managerial Disclosure: The Case of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1933-1951» Chapter 3: Employee relations and Iranianisation Author : NEVEEN Abdelrehim | The university of york The discrimination against Iranians resulted in a mix of different groups including nationality, class and employment status. The total number of hospital beds provided by the AIOC…

Wages

From «Oil Nationalisation and Managerial Disclosure: The Case of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1933-1951» Chapter 3: Employee relations and Iranianisation Author : Neveen Abdelrehim | The university of YORK The level of wages paid in the oil industry was considered more favourable than in other sectors with regard to unskilled labour[432]. Working conditions and training given…

Housing

From «Oil Nationalisation and Managerial Disclosure: The Case of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1933-1951» Chapter 3: Employee relations and Iranianisation Author : NEVEEN Abdelrehim | The university of york Since 1933, the company was only concerned to provide houses and amenities to British staff and Iranians married to British citizens[406]. The company was keen on providing…

«Iranian» claims for discrimination within the AIOC: Empirical evidence

From «Oil Nationalisation and Managerial Disclosure: The Case of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1933-1951» Chapter 3: Employee relations and Iranianisation Author : Neveen  Abdelrehim | The university of york The nationalisation crisis brought the topic of discrimination into sharp focus and it became the subject of claim and counter-claim from the company‟s board and Iranian nationalist…

Negotiating Iranianisation and Article (16)

From «Oil Nationalisation and Managerial Disclosure: The Case of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1933-1951» Chapter 3: Employee relations and Iranianisation Author : Neveen  Abdelrehim | The university of york The Iranian government argued that the employment of foreigners entailed heavy costs of expatriation, travel, relocation not incurred by Iranians. The aim was therefore to reduce the…

Iranianisation: Claims, Counter Claims and Article 16

From «Oil Nationalisation and Managerial Disclosure: The Case of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1933-1951» Chapter 3: Employee relations and Iranianisation Author : Neveen  Abdelrehim | The university of york With the 1933 agreement, there were new employment rules specified to the recruitment of the artisans, technical and commercial staff from iranian nationals. The AIOC, aware of…

Senior Management (Fraser)

  From «Oil Nationalisation and Managerial Disclosure: The Case of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1933-1951» Chapter 2: AIOC History, oil and Iranian politics. AUTHOR: NEVEEN  ABDELREHIM | THE UNIVERSITY OF YORK   As mentioned earlier in this chapter, the AIOC had no clear founder-chairmen or founding family because William Knox D‟Arcy financed the exploration in Persia…

Mossadegh’s motivations for nationalisation

From «Oil Nationalisation and Managerial Disclosure: The Case of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1933-1951» Chapter 2: AIOC History, oil and Iranian politics. AUTHOR: NEVEEN  ABDELREHIM | THE UNIVERSITY OF YORK   After the Second World War, oil played an important role in world economics and Iranian people wanted the AIOC to adopt the same attitude to…

Labour Activism Encounters Nationalism

Credit: Touraj Atabaki from «Studies in History: Far from Home, But at Home: Indian Migrant Workers in the Iranian Oil Industry» source: Jawaharlal Nehru University. The dialectics between nationalism and labour movements during colonial rule in Asia and Africa have been the subject of a few major studies.[63] Increasingly, large-scale labour migrations became a feature…

Abadan, a Triple City

Credit: Touraj Atabaki from «Studies in History: Far from Home, But at Home: Indian Migrant Workers in the Iranian Oil Industry» source: Jawaharlal Nehru University.   In her seminal study of colonial urbanization in Morocco, Janet Lughod refers to Rabat as a dual city, with sharply segregated urban spaces of the colonizer and the colonized.[48]…

Production of Place as a Contested Process

Credit: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” Place is a social construct that both constitutes and is constituted by social relations (see chapter 1). The production of place and the interpretation of its…

Public Space

Credit: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)”   The wide boulevards and the grid pattern that characterized the formal spaces of Abadan distinguished it from other Iranian cities in the interwar period. The…

Modernizing the household

Credit: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” By the mid 1930s the Company was increasingly faced with the exigency of finding ways to house its enormous workforce, but it also had to adapt…

The Urban Process in Abadan 1929-1941

Credit: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” After highly protracted and contentious negotiations that began in 1928 the Iranian government granted a new 60-year oil concession to APOC in 1933. At one point…

Successive Waves of Industrialization and Labor Activism

Credit: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” The history of industrialization in the interwar era can be roughly divided into two periods: 1919-1931 and 1931-1941. In the first period, the government facilitated and…

Labor Activism in the interwar years

Credit: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” The consolidation of the oil complex brought with it new forms of labor activism among the industrial working class. The new collective political agency of the…

The Politics of property in interwar Abadan

Credit: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)”   Who ‘owned’ this urban land? What was the meaning of property under these changing circumstances? Chapter 3 discussed the incongruence of different notions of property…

Militant Particularism in Abadan

  Credit: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” The Company’s plan to evict residents and merchants, paying compensation to those who had some form of official property title (it is unclear how many…

Labor Troubles in an Expanding Boomtown

 Author: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University   From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)”    Labor recruitment was a major challenge facing APOC, especially in the first two decades of its operation in Iran. The Company had to cast a…

Labor and the Social Question in Interwar Abadan

  Author: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University  [ From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” ]   As APOC’s operations kept expanding exponentially throughout the war years, the challenge of recruiting and maintaining an adequate labor force took on…