Company’s Reserves and Profits

From «Oil Nationalisation and Managerial Disclosure: The Case of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1933-1951» Chapter 4: Profit distribution by the AIOC Author : Neveen Abdelrehim | The university of york Since the 1933 concession, the Iranians had found it difficult to arrive at an assessment for the division of profits[525]. As mentioned earlier in the chapter,…

Housing

From «Oil Nationalisation and Managerial Disclosure: The Case of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1933-1951» Chapter 3: Employee relations and Iranianisation Author : NEVEEN Abdelrehim | The university of york Since 1933, the company was only concerned to provide houses and amenities to British staff and Iranians married to British citizens[406]. The company was keen on providing…

Undermining Mossadegh

From «Oil Nationalisation and Managerial Disclosure: The Case of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1933-1951» Chapter 2: AIOC History, oil and Iranian politics. AUTHOR: NEVEEN  ABDELREHIM | THE UNIVERSITY OF YORK After the failure of the Stokes mission, British policy made it abundantly clear that their desire was to get rid of Iran‟s popular, nationalist government under…

Senior Management (Fraser)

  From «Oil Nationalisation and Managerial Disclosure: The Case of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1933-1951» Chapter 2: AIOC History, oil and Iranian politics. AUTHOR: NEVEEN  ABDELREHIM | THE UNIVERSITY OF YORK   As mentioned earlier in this chapter, the AIOC had no clear founder-chairmen or founding family because William Knox D‟Arcy financed the exploration in Persia…

Mossadegh’s motivations for nationalisation

From «Oil Nationalisation and Managerial Disclosure: The Case of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1933-1951» Chapter 2: AIOC History, oil and Iranian politics. AUTHOR: NEVEEN  ABDELREHIM | THE UNIVERSITY OF YORK   After the Second World War, oil played an important role in world economics and Iranian people wanted the AIOC to adopt the same attitude to…

Nationalisation in 1951

From «Oil Nationalisation and Managerial Disclosure: The Case of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1933-1951» Chapter 2: AIOC History, oil and Iranian politics. AUTHOR: NEVEEN  ABDELREHIM | THE UNIVERSITY OF YORK As mentioned earlier, the problem between the Iranian government and the AIOC mainly arose in 1931 because of the decline in prices and again in 1948…

The Consortium Agreement of 1954

Credit: Iran Review A year after the overthrow of Premier Mohammad Mossadegh the new Iranian government concluded its predecessor’s negotiations with Britain over the Anglo – Iranian Oil Company (BP). The Dispute was finalized with the incorporation of an international oil consortium which reduced  BP’s share to 40%. With a pro-Western Shah and the new pro-Western Prime…

Breaking the Siege of Abadan

  This operation was an offensive of the Iran-Iraq war between 27–29 September 1981 where Iran broke the Iraqi Siege of Abadan. Iran began to carry out their main offensive against Abadan. During the night, the Iranians infiltrated a force of 20-30,000 troops across the Bahmanshir River towards the Iraqi forces on the east bank of the Karun River…

Political Complications

Credit: Ian Speller, National University of Ireland, Maynooth. From «Contemporary British History, Vol.17, No.1 (Spring 2003), pp.39–66» [Part 3]     These military difficulties were exacerbated by political factors. A clear problem for the British was the attitude of the United States towards the use of military force at Abadan. The American position was communicated…

A Splutter of Musketry? The British Military Response to the Anglo-Iranian Oil Dispute, 1951

  Credit: Ian Speller, National University of Ireland, Maynooth. From «Contemporary British History, Vol.17, No.1 (Spring 2003), pp.39–66» [Part 1] This article examines the British response to the crisis that resulted from the Iranian decision to nationalise the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company in 1951. The British government contemplated the use of military force from the outset…

Oil Politics and Coup d’état against Mossadegh

Credit: Maysam Behravesh, PhD Lund University From «The Formative Years of Anglo-Iranian Relations (1907–1953): Colonial Scramble for Iran and Its Political Legacydome» Upon his succession to the throne of Iran in September 1941,Mohammad Reza Shah found himself under enormous foreign, not least British and American, control that inclined him to design Iran’s foreign and domestic…

Iranian Oil at British Hands

Credit: Maysam Behravesh, PhD Lund University «The Formative Years of Anglo-Iranian Relations (1907–1953): Colonial Scramble for Iran and Its Political Legacydome» Since the discovery of oil in Iran by D’Arcy’s oil exploration company in 1908, and especially after the end of World War I in 1918, until the start of the Mosaddeq premiership in 1951,…

Labour Activism Encounters Nationalism

Credit: Touraj Atabaki from «Studies in History: Far from Home, But at Home: Indian Migrant Workers in the Iranian Oil Industry» source: Jawaharlal Nehru University. The dialectics between nationalism and labour movements during colonial rule in Asia and Africa have been the subject of a few major studies.[63] Increasingly, large-scale labour migrations became a feature…

Abadan, a Triple City

Credit: Touraj Atabaki from «Studies in History: Far from Home, But at Home: Indian Migrant Workers in the Iranian Oil Industry» source: Jawaharlal Nehru University.   In her seminal study of colonial urbanization in Morocco, Janet Lughod refers to Rabat as a dual city, with sharply segregated urban spaces of the colonizer and the colonized.[48]…

Production of Place as a Contested Process

Credit: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” Place is a social construct that both constitutes and is constituted by social relations (see chapter 1). The production of place and the interpretation of its…

Public Space

Credit: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)”   The wide boulevards and the grid pattern that characterized the formal spaces of Abadan distinguished it from other Iranian cities in the interwar period. The…

Modernizing the household

Credit: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” By the mid 1930s the Company was increasingly faced with the exigency of finding ways to house its enormous workforce, but it also had to adapt…

The Urban Process in Abadan 1929-1941

Credit: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” After highly protracted and contentious negotiations that began in 1928 the Iranian government granted a new 60-year oil concession to APOC in 1933. At one point…

Labor Activism in the interwar years

Credit: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” The consolidation of the oil complex brought with it new forms of labor activism among the industrial working class. The new collective political agency of the…

The Honeymoon of 1926

  Credit: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” In the winter of1926, after Reza Shah had ascended the throne, the government re-opened the case of the Bazaar. Now the terms of the inquiry…

The Politics of property in interwar Abadan

Credit: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)”   Who ‘owned’ this urban land? What was the meaning of property under these changing circumstances? Chapter 3 discussed the incongruence of different notions of property…

Militant Particularism in Abadan

  Credit: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” The Company’s plan to evict residents and merchants, paying compensation to those who had some form of official property title (it is unclear how many…

The Politics of Food

Credit: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” The Company’s claim about food supplies being of vital importance, on an equal par with clean water, housing, and sanitation were not off the mark. As…

The Bazaar of Abadan

  Credit: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” Prior to 1925 when the new central government institutions began to be set up in Khuzestan, APOC would routinely take drastic coercive measures to evacuate…

Abadan; Building a Sanitary City

  Credit : Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” Reza Khan concluded his important military campaign against Skeikh Khaz’al in 1924 with a formal visit to Abadan and the Fields. During the visit…

Labor Troubles in an Expanding Boomtown

 Author: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University   From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)”    Labor recruitment was a major challenge facing APOC, especially in the first two decades of its operation in Iran. The Company had to cast a…

Labor and the Social Question in Interwar Abadan

  Author: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University  [ From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” ]   As APOC’s operations kept expanding exponentially throughout the war years, the challenge of recruiting and maintaining an adequate labor force took on…

Creating Enclaves; Setting Boundaries

    Author: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University  [ From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” ]   The Oil Company, in particular, tried to carve out exclusive geographies by effectively denationalizing territories over which it could exercise its…

The 1926 Turning Point: Oil Encounter in Abadan

  Author: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University  [ From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” ]   The short decade after WWI witnessed the consolidation of the oil industry in Iran. The interlude was a revolutionary turning point on…

The Fallout from the 1926 General Strike

  Author: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University  [ From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” ]     The social policies that formed the core of the emerging welfare state in post war Britain were highly complex to implement,…

The Rise to Prominence of Professional Middle Class Experts and their Impact on Corporate Culture and Governmental Social Policies

  Author: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University  [ From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” ]   When in 1926 APOC undertook the task of re-configuring its operations in Khuzestan, the protracted and extensive discussion among its senior directors…

Setting Oil Policy After the War

  Author: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University  [ From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” ]   As one of Britain’s major petrochemical and primary industrial materials producers, the attitudes and praxis of APOC directors and experts were constantly…

Housing and Urban Politics During WWI and After

  Author: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University  [ From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” ]   In the predominantly working class Britain the increasingly prominent public role of labor and the sacrifices it was asked to make were…

Oil Versus Coal: Warfare as Midwife of Change of Fuel Source

    Author: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University  [ From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” ]   In 1911 the United States adopted oil-fired boilers for its new heavy warships. Britain also had begun searching for a sustainable…

Sanitation and Segregation in the City

  Author: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University  [ From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” ]   The politics of sanitation and public health did not create only an inclusive and universal dynamic of citizenship entitlement to a healthy…

Contagion and the Politics of Prevention

  Author: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University  [ From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” ] The question of contagious diseases and their root causes became a central preoccupation of urban life in 19th century European and colonial cities…

Conclusion: From Formal to Real Subsumption to Oil Capitalism

  Author: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University  [ From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” ]   Abadan’s urban environment had to be carved out of the existing social order, by first fragmenting and then reintegrating it into the…

Making Abadan an Oil Town: 1911-1921

Author: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University  [ From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” ] Khuzestan was one of the most impoverished and least urbanized areas of Iran, itself a desperately poor country at the turn of the 20th…

An Empty Land and a People Without History!?

  Author: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University  [ From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” ] In chapter one the functional importance to the discourse and practice of modernization of depicting the targeted area for development as desolate and…