WORK CAMPS AND COMPANY TOWNS: THE IMPACT OF THE OIL INDUSTRY ON SETTLEMENT PATTERNS IN THE PERSIAN GULF by Ian Seccombe & Richard Lawless   Of the new towns in the Persian gulf created following the discovery and development of the region’s oil resources, Abadan was by far the most important and experienced the most […]

WORK CAMPS AND COMPANY TOWNS: THE IMPACT OF THE OIL INDUSTRY ON SETTLEMENT PATTERNS IN THE PERSIAN GULF by Ian Seccombe & Richard Lawless   In the second half of the nineteenth century, Khuzestan was one of the least developed provinces in Persia and the great majority of the population lived in absolute poverty.  The […]

Shaikh Khaz’al bin Jābir bin Mirdāw al-Ka‘bī was loyal to the British hoping they would help him – but they didn’t. Originally Published in British Library’s Untold Lives blog. / Scrool.in by  Louis Allday The Qatar Digital Library has digitised a number of sources concerning the life and times of Shaikh Khaz’al bin Jābir bin Mirdāw al-Ka‘bī (1861-1936), the Emir of […]

From Arthur Cook in Abadan Examiner (Launceston, Tas. : 1900 – 1954), Friday 19 October 1951, page 2     «A NOTICE has appeared on the front page of the Abadan Daily News under the heading “Important.” It explained to the population that there were still some British left in Abadan.» «”They are British journalists […]

International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences | Intl. Res. J. Appl. Basic. Sci. Vol., 9 (4), 575-582, 2015 Corresponding Author: Saied Haghighi ABSTRACT: When oil was discovered in the south of Iran, there appeared a great need to establish a city to handle the requirements of oil system. Industry and urbanization were brought […]

Parham Karimi — Master of Architecture, University of Toronto (Corresponding Author) Hamid Afshar — Master of Archeology, Tarbiat Modares University Iranology Foundation, Research Department of Art and Architecture – Fall 2017   The built environment constructed around oil fields are important on many levels. They have influenced the lifestyle of many people who have worked and lived […]

IRAN’S GLOBAL PETROLEUMSCAPE: THE ROLE OF OIL IN SHAPING KHUZESTAN AND TEHRAN

FLORIAT KEW” THE JOURNAL OF THE KEW G U I L D, AN ASSOCIATION OF KEW GARDENERS Etc. PAST AND PRESENT.

JM’s first commission for the Anglo Persian Oil Company was in 1927, for a general hospital in the ‘company town’ of Abadan. The design was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1928. It didn’t get built as conceived, although an outpatient dispensary was built in 1931.

Oxford University Press 1941 Source: Paul Schroeder Click here to Download the full chapters    

Today, only some Abadanis know that their city was once graced by visits from the likes of Dizzy Gillespie, Dave Brubeck and Duke Ellington.

When a power-cut hits Abadan, the only thing that fills the darkness with light are the flames of the refinery. This makes it clear to everyone how contradictory and ultimately ephemeral modernity is.

PART TWO: When Iran’s Abadan was Capital of the World by Rasmus Christian Elling Originally published in ABADAN RETOLD This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.   Abadan is special. Or at least, it used to be special. Its urban and social fabric stands out from all other Iranians cities. Its inhabitants […]

by Rasmus Christian Elling Originally published in ABADAN RETOLD This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. Based on a work at www.ajammc.com. PART ONE: What if oil is magic? Sure, we are used to think of oil as a curse disguised as a blessing: as oil is extracted and refined, it turns […]

by Claus V. Pedersen, Associate Professor, University of Copenhagen Originally published in ABADAN RETOLD This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. Armenian-Iranian prose writer Zoya Pirzad, born in Abadan 1952, was the shining star on the Iranian literary firmament during the 1990s and the early years of this century. With the […]

by Khodadad Rezakhani, Freie Universität, Berlin Originally published in ABADAN RETOLD This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.   The geography of Abadan and its location between and in close proximity to many different rivers makes it a hard sight to pinpoint. Some of the available textual references can only be speculated […]

by Dan Williams Originally published in «Here, There and an Attempt on Everywhere»   In the morning Hossein Afshar conducted a tour of Abadan, and there is no one who knows more about the city.   We crossed Breim, pausing briefly at his old house, and reached the northern shore of the island, passing the […]

by Dan Williams Originally published in «Here, There and an Attempt on Everywhere»   The road from Ahvaz to Khorramshahr has two lanes, is a hundred kilometres long and has no gradients, no bends and no cross roads. At first we passed through scrubland so flat it stretched into the distance before dropping from view […]

by Dan Williams Originally published in «Here, There and an Attempt on Everywhere» Milestone birthdays tend to make us look back. This is the first of three birthday posts which do just that. Tomorrow I will be 65 years old and become an OAP. How I reached this state is a mystery; ignoring the odd ache […]

by Shireen Walton Originally published in ABADAN RETOLD This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. The past is a foreign country: they do things differently there. L.P Hartley, The Go-between, 1953 Conjuring Abadan online: the magic of technology However one attempts to understand the history of Abadan, images and nostalgia are clearly entry […]

by Paul Schroeder Originally published in ABADAN RETOLD This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. Editor’s note: Paul Schroeder lived in Abadan from June, 1958 to February, 1960. His father Charles, worked for the refinery whose main task was to coordinate an update of financial controls and administration of the refinery’s […]

by Willem Floor Originally published in ABADAN RETOLD This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. Before oil. The island of ‘Abbadan, as it was usually known in its Arabic form, was locally more commonly called Jazirat al-Khizr or Khezr island.[1] The maraqqat ‘Abbadan or ‘Abbadan reef was well known to mariners sailing into […]

by Mattin Biglari Originally Published in ABADAN RETOLD This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. Abadan is and always has been the centre of Iran’s oil industry. Curiously, however, relatively few have examined how, beyond economic effects, this centre of oil has been connected to the centre of politics, Tehran. Yet […]

Author: Rasmus Christian Elling | Published in: Urban Violence in the Middle East Publication date: 2015, Document Version, Early version, also known as pre-print Citation for published version (APA): Elling, R. C. (2015). On Lines and Fences: Labour, Community and Violence in an Oil City. In U. Freitag, N. Fuccaro, C. Ghrawi, & N. Lafi (Eds.), […]

Author: Kaveh Ehsani Publisher:Faculty of the Humanities, Leiden University Click here to download in PDF format

Rasmus Christian Elling, University of Copenhagen Published in: Violence and the City in the Modern Middle East   AUTHOR’S PRE-PRINT VERSION OF ELLING, R. C. (2016) «WAR OF CLUBS: STRUGGLE FOR SPACE IN ABADAN AND THE 1946 OIL STRIKE» IN N. FUCCARO (ED.), VIOLENCE AND THE CITY IN THE MODERN MIDDLE EAST (PP. 189-210). STANFORD UNIVERSITY […]

Click here to download of PDF format

  ON LINES AND FENCES: LABOUR, COMMUNITY AND VIOLENCE IN AN OIL CITY Rasmus Christian Elling Published in: Urban Violence in the Middle East     While the Iranian labour movement undoubtedly perceived the Company as nothing but an extension of British imperialism, the Company could also be seen in a more nuanced light: as […]

  ON LINES AND FENCES: LABOUR, COMMUNITY AND VIOLENCE IN AN OIL CITY Rasmus Christian Elling Published in: Urban Violence in the Middle East   On 19 December 1942, two separate episodes of violence led to the Bahmashir Incident. In subsequent reports, the Labour Superintendent recounted that around 2 p.m., three Indian soldiers had gone […]

  ON LINES AND FENCES: LABOUR, COMMUNITY AND VIOLENCE IN AN OIL CITY Rasmus Christian Elling Published in: Urban Violence in the Middle East       The horrible living conditions of most oil workers in the early days of the Concession are a well-known topic.[50] Indeed, the Company’s unwillingness or inability to provide adequate […]

  ON LINES AND FENCES: LABOUR, COMMUNITY AND VIOLENCE IN AN OIL CITY Rasmus Christian Elling Published in: Urban Violence in the Middle East   The working conditions in Khuzestan were harsh, with long summers dominated by extreme heat and tasks that entailed significant risks and dangers. Work hours were long, breaks few and holidays […]

  ON LINES AND FENCES: LABOUR, COMMUNITY AND VIOLENCE IN AN OIL CITY Rasmus Christian Elling Published in: Urban Violence in the Middle East     In the first phase of labour migration between 1908 and 1920, Indians were brought to Khuzestan to work as skilled and unskilled labour in the Fields and as clerks […]

  Rasmus Christian Elling Published in: Urban Violence in the Middle East   In December 1942, unrest broke out in Abadan, arguably Iran’s first modern industrial city and home to the world’s biggest oil refinery. Two scuffles in the bazaar provoked Iranians from the Ahmadabad neighbourhood to attack Indian labourers in the ‘Indian Lines’ of […]

  by Ramin Tork August 1, 2002 – The Iranian     Bazaar Kuwaiti After the butcher, and the grocer was a small fabrics shop just at the junction of Zand and Amiri streets. This was the first of many shops, which the local Abadanies called “Bazaar Kuwaiti”. After this point you had all the foreign or […]

  by Shahrzad Irani March 1, 2002 – The Iranian Margaret Habibi, a long time resident of Abadan, died on Tuesday, March 26. Nearly a year ago she wrote a letter to Shahrzad Irani, after seeing her article and photo essay on Abadan [Oh, sweet home]. When I saw her photograph in my email box last […]

by Mahsa J.  March 1, 2003 – The Iranian   My mother’s family are from Abadan. I was born there but never technically lived there. But since we lived in the south, we used to go there once or twice a month to visit my grandparents. I was never short of cousin playmates, as my aunts lived […]

  by Saman Ghiassi  December 12, 2003 – The Iranian Abadan, in southwest Iran, is where my ancestors lived for a long time. It’s a city well known for its large oil industry. It was one of the first cities attacked by Saddam’s army back in 1981. I had heard people talk about the impact of the war, […]

  by Mammad Aidani  June 3, 2003 – Iranian.com   I looked back and saw them walking behind me, at a very close distance. They were bullying us in the backyard of our school. That was their normal behaviour and it was frightening most of us. They looked extremely rough. They seemed to have a great time […]

War of Clubs: Struggle for Space in Abadan and the 1946 Oil Strike Rasmus Christian Elling, University of Copenhagen Published in: Violence and the City in the Modern Middle East   Unsurprisingly, Tudeh and Company accounts of what happened on 14 and 15 July differ. Certainly, there was a clash sometime after 6 p.m., but […]

  War of Clubs: Struggle for Space in Abadan and the 1946 Oil Strike Rasmus Christian Elling, University of Copenhagen Published in: Violence and the City in the Modern Middle East Throughout 1946, Arab sheikhs repeatedly complained to the Company about Tudeh’s aggressive campaigning. In Abadan’s rural hinterland, Arabs violently confronted itinerant Tudeh propagandists, and […]

War of Clubs: Struggle for Space in Abadan and the 1946 Oil Strike Rasmus Christian Elling, University of Copenhagen Published in: Violence and the City in the Modern Middle East   Despite the Company’s vigorous attempts to curb dissent, the success of the labor movement was nonetheless directly tied to the very spaces created by […]

  War of Clubs: Struggle for Space in Abadan and the 1946 Oil Strike Rasmus Christian Elling, University of Copenhagen Published in: Violence and the City in the Modern Middle East   By the 1910s, a modus vivendi had been established between the Company and Sheikh Khaz’al. The former lent the latter recognition, external protection, […]

War of Clubs: Struggle for Space in Abadan and the 1946 Oil Strike Rasmus Christian Elling, University of Copenhagen Published in: Violence and the City in the Modern Middle East   Abadan’s modern history is inextricably tied to that of the Anglo-Persian— later Anglo-Iranian—Oil Company (henceforth, “the Company”). When oil was struck in Iran in […]

Rasmus Christian Elling, University of Copenhagen Published in: Violence and the City in the Modern Middle East   [W]e cannot be over-nice about legality and fair play where it is a question of vital oil interests. The British ambassador in Tehran to the consul in Ahwaz, May 1946[1] In its mid-twentieth-century heyday, the city of […]

Oil Nationalisation and Managerial Disclosure: The Case of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1933-1951 Chapter 5: The AIOC’s Stock Market reaction to nationalisation: Event Analysis and empirical results AUTHOR : NEVEEN ABDELREHIM | THE UNIVERSITY OF YORK This section proposes three related and alternative hypotheses to be examined using a data set of historical quantitative variables. The […]

Oil Nationalisation and Managerial Disclosure: The Case of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1933-1951 Chapter 5: The AIOC’s Stock Market reaction to nationalisation: Event Analysis and empirical results AUTHOR : NEVEEN ABDELREHIM | THE UNIVERSITY OF YORK There are three different models used in event study literature to estimate ex ante expected returns[689]. These are Mean Adjusted […]

Oil Nationalisation and Managerial Disclosure: The Case of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1933-1951 Chapter 5: The AIOC’s Stock Market reaction to nationalisation: Event Analysis and empirical results AUTHOR : NEVEEN ABDELREHIM | THE UNIVERSITY OF YORK As previously mentioned, the event should be unanticipated and the magnitude of abnormal performance is consistent with market efficiency since […]

Oil Nationalisation and Managerial Disclosure: The Case of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1933-1951 Chapter 5: The AIOC’s Stock Market reaction to nationalisation: Event Analysis and empirical results AUTHOR : NEVEEN ABDELREHIM | THE UNIVERSITY OF YORK Introduction This chapter examines the AIOC‟s stock market reaction to nationalisation. As previously discussed in Chapter 2, the AIOC operated […]

From “Oil Nationalisation and Managerial Disclosure: The Case of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1933-1951” Chapter 4: Profit distribution by the AIOC AUTHOR : NEVEEN ABDELREHIM | THE UNIVERSITY OF YORK  Fraser was aware that the existing concession gave advantage to the AIOC. He therefore stressed that the company should not request the amendment of the […]

From “Oil Nationalisation and Managerial Disclosure: The Case of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1933-1951” Chapter 4: Profit distribution by the AIOC AUTHOR : NEVEEN ABDELREHIM | THE UNIVERSITY OF YORK Gass and other AIOC representatives attended the meetings in which the contents of the government‟s Memorandum were discussed and each party kept its own record of […]

From “Oil Nationalisation and Managerial Disclosure: The Case of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1933-1951” Chapter 4: Profit distribution by the AIOC AUTHOR : NEVEEN ABDELREHIM | THE UNIVERSITY OF YORK The Memorandum invoked the Iranian government‟s desire to convert Iran‟s participation in the company‟s reserves into the form of shares of the company, as in the […]

From “Oil Nationalisation and Managerial Disclosure: The Case of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1933-1951” Chapter 4: Profit distribution by the AIOC AUTHOR : NEVEEN ABDELREHIM | THE UNIVERSITY OF YORK In view of the importance of cheap fuel in the economic life of Iran, it was necessary that the sale price of petrol in Persia should […]

From “Oil Nationalisation and Managerial Disclosure: The Case of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1933-1951” Chapter 4: Profit distribution by the AIOC AUTHOR : NEVEEN ABDELREHIM | THE UNIVERSITY OF YORK Ferrier has pointed out that, as part of Persia‟s dividend was based on 20% of the company‟s profits, the Iranian government must certainly be aware of […]

From “Oil Nationalisation and Managerial Disclosure: The Case of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1933-1951” Chapter 4: Profit distribution by the AIOC Author : Neveen Abdelrehim | The university of york Dividends were restricted as a result of post war limitations imposed on British companies by the British Government and the AIOC “could not as one of […]

From “Oil Nationalisation and Managerial Disclosure: The Case of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1933-1951” Chapter 4: Profit distribution by the AIOC Author : Neveen Abdelrehim | The university of york Royalties were paid by the AIOC to Iran in return for taking away minerals from their exhaustible natural deposits, and they should reflect either a proportion […]

From “Oil Nationalisation and Managerial Disclosure: The Case of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1933-1951” Chapter 4: Profit distribution by the AIOC Author : Neveen Abdelrehim | The university of york Since the 1933 concession, the Iranians had found it difficult to arrive at an assessment for the division of profits[525]. As mentioned earlier in the chapter, […]

From “Oil Nationalisation and Managerial Disclosure: The Case of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1933-1951” Chapter 4: Profit distribution by the AIOC Author : Neveen Abdelrehim | The university of york Iranians were willing to see the payment terms improved because they were dissatisfied with the massive amount of tax paid to the British government[516]. The Memorandum […]

From “Oil Nationalisation and Managerial Disclosure: The Case of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1933-1951” Chapter 4: Profit distribution by the AIOC Author : Neveen Abdelrehim | The university of york The 1933 concession and the Supplemental Agreement had a number of key points which proved controversial and resulted in the issuance of Gidel‟s Memorandum. The Memorandum […]

From “Oil Nationalisation and Managerial Disclosure: The Case of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1933-1951” Chapter 4: Profit distribution by the AIOC Author : Neveen Abdelrehim | The university of york In the light of the literature reviewed in chapter 2, the question of distribution of oil income continued to be a major source of rising conflict […]

From “Oil Nationalisation and Managerial Disclosure: The Case of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1933-1951” Chapter 3: Employee relations and Iranianisation Author : Neveen Abdelrehim | The university of york The above discussion has re-considered the claims and counter claims of the AIOC and Iranian representatives in the light of Fraser‟s public and private correspondence. Historical evidence […]

From “Oil Nationalisation and Managerial Disclosure: The Case of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1933-1951” Chapter 3: Employee relations and Iranianisation Author : Neveen Abdelrehim | The university of york Part of Fraser‟s strategy was to use financial reporting as a means of communication to maintain employee confidence. In view of nationalisation and the associated uncertainties from […]

From “Oil Nationalisation and Managerial Disclosure: The Case of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1933-1951” Chapter 3: Employee relations and Iranianisation Author : NEVEEN Abdelrehim | The university of york The discrimination against Iranians resulted in a mix of different groups including nationality, class and employment status. The total number of hospital beds provided by the AIOC […]

From “Oil Nationalisation and Managerial Disclosure: The Case of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1933-1951” Chapter 3: Employee relations and Iranianisation Author : Neveen Abdelrehim | The university of YORK The level of wages paid in the oil industry was considered more favourable than in other sectors with regard to unskilled labour[432]. Working conditions and training given […]

From “Oil Nationalisation and Managerial Disclosure: The Case of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1933-1951” Chapter 3: Employee relations and Iranianisation Author : NEVEEN Abdelrehim | The university of york Since 1933, the company was only concerned to provide houses and amenities to British staff and Iranians married to British citizens[406]. The company was keen on providing […]

From “Oil Nationalisation and Managerial Disclosure: The Case of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1933-1951” Chapter 3: Employee relations and Iranianisation Author : Neveen  Abdelrehim | The university of york The nationalisation crisis brought the topic of discrimination into sharp focus and it became the subject of claim and counter-claim from the company‟s board and Iranian nationalist […]

From “Oil Nationalisation and Managerial Disclosure: The Case of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1933-1951” Chapter 3: Employee relations and Iranianisation Author : Neveen  Abdelrehim | The university of york The Iranian government argued that the employment of foreigners entailed heavy costs of expatriation, travel, relocation not incurred by Iranians. The aim was therefore to reduce the […]

From “Oil Nationalisation and Managerial Disclosure: The Case of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1933-1951” Chapter 3: Employee relations and Iranianisation Author : Neveen  Abdelrehim | The university of york With the 1933 agreement, there were new employment rules specified to the recruitment of the artisans, technical and commercial staff from iranian nationals. The AIOC, aware of […]

From “Oil Nationalisation and Managerial Disclosure: The Case of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1933-1951” Chapter 2: AIOC History, oil and Iranian politics. AUTHOR: NEVEEN  ABDELREHIM | THE UNIVERSITY OF YORK The years preceding nationalisation witnessed a series of failed proposals on the one hand, and a succession of Iranian governments and institutional changes on the other, […]

From “Oil Nationalisation and Managerial Disclosure: The Case of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1933-1951” Chapter 2: AIOC History, oil and Iranian politics. AUTHOR: NEVEEN  ABDELREHIM | THE UNIVERSITY OF YORK After the failure of the Stokes mission, British policy made it abundantly clear that their desire was to get rid of Iran‟s popular, nationalist government under […]

From “Oil Nationalisation and Managerial Disclosure: The Case of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1933-1951” Chapter 2: AIOC History, oil and Iranian politics. AUTHOR: NEVEEN  ABDELREHIM | THE UNIVERSITY OF YORK   Britain was concerned that Iran might use its oil as a political weapon in order to claim a share in the company‟s worldwide profits under […]

From “Oil Nationalisation and Managerial Disclosure: The Case of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1933-1951” Chapter 2: AIOC History, oil and Iranian politics AUTHOR: NEVEEN  ABDELREHIM | THE UNIVERSITY OF YORK The AIOC was one of the largest companies quoted on the Stock Exchange and Britain feared that Iran might use its oil as a political weapon. […]

  From “Oil Nationalisation and Managerial Disclosure: The Case of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1933-1951” Chapter 2: AIOC History, oil and Iranian politics. AUTHOR: NEVEEN  ABDELREHIM | THE UNIVERSITY OF YORK   As mentioned earlier in this chapter, the AIOC had no clear founder-chairmen or founding family because William Knox D‟Arcy financed the exploration in Persia […]

From “Oil Nationalisation and Managerial Disclosure: The Case of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1933-1951” Chapter 2: AIOC History, oil and Iranian politics. AUTHOR: NEVEEN  ABDELREHIM | THE UNIVERSITY OF YORK   After the Second World War, oil played an important role in world economics and Iranian people wanted the AIOC to adopt the same attitude to […]

From “Oil Nationalisation and Managerial Disclosure: The Case of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1933-1951” Chapter 2: AIOC History, oil and Iranian politics. AUTHOR: NEVEEN  ABDELREHIM | THE UNIVERSITY OF YORK As mentioned earlier, the problem between the Iranian government and the AIOC mainly arose in 1931 because of the decline in prices and again in 1948 […]

From “Oil Nationalisation and Managerial Disclosure: The Case of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1933-1951” Chapter 2: AIOC History, oil and Iranian politics. AUTHOR: NEVEEN  ABDELREHIM | THE UNIVERSITY OF YORK Attempts to resolve the disagreements between the Iranian government and the company failed and the company was renamed the Anglo Iranian Oil Company (AIOC). The Iranian […]

From “Oil Nationalisation and Managerial Disclosure: The Case of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1933-1951” Chapter 2: AIOC History, oil and Iranian politics. AUTHOR: NEVEEN  ABDELREHIM | THE UNIVERSITY OF YORK The 1933 Concessionary Agreement defined several rights and obligations for the AIOC and the Iranian government, to guarantee the continuation of the company‟s operations. The concession […]

From “Oil Nationalisation and Managerial Disclosure: The Case of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1933-1951” Chapter 2: AIOC History, oil and Iranian politics. AUTHOR: NEVEEN  ABDELREHIM | THE UNIVERSITY OF YORK The D’Arcy concession In 1901, William Knox D‟Arcy, the son of an Irish solicitor and a millionaire London socialite was the real founder of the AIOC[113]. […]

From “Oil Nationalisation and Managerial Disclosure: The Case of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1933-1951” Chapter 2: AIOC History, oil and Iranian politics. AUTHOR: NEVEEN  ABDELREHIM | THE UNIVERSITY OF YORK The establishment of the AIOC The literature on the AIOC emanates from a number of very different sources[98]. In the post war years, the development of […]

Credit: Iran Review A year after the overthrow of Premier Mohammad Mossadegh the new Iranian government concluded its predecessor’s negotiations with Britain over the Anglo – Iranian Oil Company (BP). The Dispute was finalized with the incorporation of an international oil consortium which reduced  BP’s share to 40%. With a pro-Western Shah and the new pro-Western Prime […]

  This operation was an offensive of the Iran-Iraq war between 27–29 September 1981 where Iran broke the Iraqi Siege of Abadan. Iran began to carry out their main offensive against Abadan. During the night, the Iranians infiltrated a force of 20-30,000 troops across the Bahmanshir River towards the Iraqi forces on the east bank of the Karun River […]

Credit: Ian Speller, National University of Ireland, Maynooth. From “Contemporary British History, Vol.17, No.1 (Spring 2003), pp.39–66” [Part 3]     These military difficulties were exacerbated by political factors. A clear problem for the British was the attitude of the United States towards the use of military force at Abadan. The American position was communicated […]

Credit: Ian Speller, National University of Ireland, Maynooth. From “Contemporary British History, Vol.17, No.1 (Spring 2003), pp.39–66” [Part 2]   Initially, elements within the UK armed forces appeared willing to countenance great risks in order to achieve swift and decisive action to secure Abadan. On 18 May the Chief of the Air Staff, Sir John […]

  Credit: Ian Speller, National University of Ireland, Maynooth. From “Contemporary British History, Vol.17, No.1 (Spring 2003), pp.39–66” [Part 1] This article examines the British response to the crisis that resulted from the Iranian decision to nationalise the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company in 1951. The British government contemplated the use of military force from the outset […]

Credit: Maysam Behravesh, PhD Lund University From “The Formative Years of Anglo-Iranian Relations (1907–1953): Colonial Scramble for Iran and Its Political Legacydome” Upon his succession to the throne of Iran in September 1941,Mohammad Reza Shah found himself under enormous foreign, not least British and American, control that inclined him to design Iran’s foreign and domestic […]

Credit: Maysam Behravesh, PhD Lund University “The Formative Years of Anglo-Iranian Relations (1907–1953): Colonial Scramble for Iran and Its Political Legacydome” Since the discovery of oil in Iran by D’Arcy’s oil exploration company in 1908, and especially after the end of World War I in 1918, until the start of the Mosaddeq premiership in 1951, […]

Credit: Touraj Atabaki from “Studies in History: Far from Home, But at Home: Indian Migrant Workers in the Iranian Oil Industry” source: Jawaharlal Nehru University. The dialectics between nationalism and labour movements during colonial rule in Asia and Africa have been the subject of a few major studies.[63] Increasingly, large-scale labour migrations became a feature […]

Credit: Touraj Atabaki from “Studies in History: Far from Home, But at Home: Indian Migrant Workers in the Iranian Oil Industry” source: Jawaharlal Nehru University.   In her seminal study of colonial urbanization in Morocco, Janet Lughod refers to Rabat as a dual city, with sharply segregated urban spaces of the colonizer and the colonized.[48] […]

Credit: Touraj Atabaki from “Studies in History: Far from Home, But at Home: Indian Migrant Workers in the Iranian Oil Industry” source: Jawaharlal Nehru University.   Abstract This article revisits the life and times of Indian migrant workers in Persia/Iran during the first half of the twentieth century, and discusses their contributions to the founding, […]

Credit: Mark Crinson from “Planning Perspectives, Volume 12, Issue 3, 1997, pages 341- 359.” History of Art Department, University of Manchester  Industry and urbanization were brought to south-west Iran when large quantities of oil were struck there in the early years of this century. This paper explores the development of Abadan from these beginnings to the […]

Credit: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” Place is a social construct that both constitutes and is constituted by social relations (see chapter 1). The production of place and the interpretation of its […]

Credit: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)”   The wide boulevards and the grid pattern that characterized the formal spaces of Abadan distinguished it from other Iranian cities in the interwar period. The […]

Credit: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” By the mid 1930s the Company was increasingly faced with the exigency of finding ways to house its enormous workforce, but it also had to adapt […]

Credit: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” After highly protracted and contentious negotiations that began in 1928 the Iranian government granted a new 60-year oil concession to APOC in 1933. At one point […]

Credit: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” The history of industrialization in the interwar era can be roughly divided into two periods: 1919-1931 and 1931-1941. In the first period, the government facilitated and […]

Credit: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” The consolidation of the oil complex brought with it new forms of labor activism among the industrial working class. The new collective political agency of the […]

Credit: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)”   In 1924 the Prime Minister Reza Khan visited APOC installations at Abadan and the Fields and was received formally and with eager hospitality by the […]

  Credit: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)”   The previous chapters have been heavily focused on the largely overlooked but formative early period of the assemblage of the oil complex and the […]

  Credit: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” Most histories of this period have depicted the reasons behind the increasingly turbulent relationships between APOC and the Iranian Government between 1928-1933 as caused by […]

  Credit: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” In the winter of1926, after Reza Shah had ascended the throne, the government re-opened the case of the Bazaar. Now the terms of the inquiry […]

Credit: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” Illusions of Segregation: Servants and the Politics of Domestic Households As it turned out Greenhouse’s urgency in the autumn of 1925 had not been misplaced. The […]

Credit: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)”   Who ‘owned’ this urban land? What was the meaning of property under these changing circumstances? Chapter 3 discussed the incongruence of different notions of property […]

  Credit: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” The Company’s plan to evict residents and merchants, paying compensation to those who had some form of official property title (it is unclear how many […]

Credit: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” The Company’s claim about food supplies being of vital importance, on an equal par with clean water, housing, and sanitation were not off the mark. As […]

  Credit: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” Prior to 1925 when the new central government institutions began to be set up in Khuzestan, APOC would routinely take drastic coercive measures to evacuate […]

Credit : Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)”     In February 1926 APOC medical director Dr. M. Young provided an assessment of the sanitary challenges facing the urban situation in Abadan: “Even […]

  Credit : Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” Reza Khan concluded his important military campaign against Skeikh Khaz’al in 1924 with a formal visit to Abadan and the Fields. During the visit […]

  AUTHOR: KAVEH EHSANI, LEIDEN UNIVERSITY   FROM “THE SOCIAL HISTORY OF LABOR IN THE IRANIAN OIL INDUSTRY : THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT AND THE MAKING OF THE INDUSTRIAL WORKING CLASS (1908-1941)” In the interwar years mass education of Iranian workers and their children became a pressing concern for APOC, and it entered its repertoire of reluctant […]

AUTHOR: KAVEH EHSANI, LEIDEN UNIVERSITY   FROM “THE SOCIAL HISTORY OF LABOR IN THE IRANIAN OIL INDUSTRY : THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT AND THE MAKING OF THE INDUSTRIAL WORKING CLASS (1908-1941)”    APOC suffered from a poor image in the early years of its operations, and this caused problems with recruiting and retaining employees, not to mention […]

 Author: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University   From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)”    Labor recruitment was a major challenge facing APOC, especially in the first two decades of its operation in Iran. The Company had to cast a […]

  Author: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University  [ From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” ]   As APOC’s operations kept expanding exponentially throughout the war years, the challenge of recruiting and maintaining an adequate labor force took on […]

    Author: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University  [ From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” ]   The Oil Company, in particular, tried to carve out exclusive geographies by effectively denationalizing territories over which it could exercise its […]

  Author: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University  [ From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” ]   The short decade after WWI witnessed the consolidation of the oil industry in Iran. The interlude was a revolutionary turning point on […]

  Author: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University  [ From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” ]   By mid-1920’s APOC was re-organizing into a new form of business organization, which four decades later David Lilienthal named the multi-national corporation[199]. […]

  Author: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University  [ From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” ]     The social policies that formed the core of the emerging welfare state in post war Britain were highly complex to implement, […]

  Author: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University  [ From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” ]   When in 1926 APOC undertook the task of re-configuring its operations in Khuzestan, the protracted and extensive discussion among its senior directors […]

  Author: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University  [ From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” ]   In the previous sections I have outlined the impact of public health measures, military conscription, the dramatic expansion of the labor market […]

  Author: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University  [ From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” ]   As one of Britain’s major petrochemical and primary industrial materials producers, the attitudes and praxis of APOC directors and experts were constantly […]

  Author: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University  [ From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” ]   In the predominantly working class Britain the increasingly prominent public role of labor and the sacrifices it was asked to make were […]

    Author: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University  [ From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” ]   In 1911 the United States adopted oil-fired boilers for its new heavy warships. Britain also had begun searching for a sustainable […]

  Author: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University  [ From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” ]   WWI transformed the world[46] by “mark[ing] a true watershed between the 19th and 20th centuries”, precipitating a social and economic revolution in […]

  Author: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University  [ From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” ]   The politics of sanitation and public health did not create only an inclusive and universal dynamic of citizenship entitlement to a healthy […]

  Author: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University  [ From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” ] The question of contagious diseases and their root causes became a central preoccupation of urban life in 19th century European and colonial cities […]

  Author: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University  [ From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” ]   Abadan’s urban environment had to be carved out of the existing social order, by first fragmenting and then reintegrating it into the […]

Author: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University  [ From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” ] Khuzestan was one of the most impoverished and least urbanized areas of Iran, itself a desperately poor country at the turn of the 20th […]

  Author: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University  [ From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” ] In chapter one the functional importance to the discourse and practice of modernization of depicting the targeted area for development as desolate and […]

Author: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University  [ From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” ] While the land agreements with the Bakhtiyaris were being drawn in Masjed Soleyman the Oil Company was also engaged in making a similar arrangement […]

Author: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University  [ From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” ]   British policy toward Iran underwent significant reassessments throughout the 19th and through the first three decades of the 20th centuries, with fundamental repercussions […]

Author: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University  [ From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” ] In the wake of WWI, for the first time, Britain appeared as the absolute master of the situation in Iran and the Persian Gulf[1]. […]

Author: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University  [ From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” ] While the initial D’Arcy Concession of 1908 was the product of crafty and remarkably amoral negotiations and deals between British and Iranian statesmen and […]

Author: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University  [ From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” ] The privileging of macro scales and meta-narratives of modernization and the nation state in the historiography of oil have tended to silence the lived […]

Author: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University  [ From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” ] The story of the Abadan bazaar opens a window into the interplay of the localnational-global forces that produced a new configuration of the oil […]

Author: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University  [ From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” ]   Small and local as this episode may appear, it encapsulated the emergence of a new habitus around the oil complex in Khuzestan. WWI […]

Author: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University  [ From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” ]   In 1925-27 APOC decided to build a “properly planned, efficient, and sanitary” market place in a small area sandwiched between the refinery, the […]

Author: Kaveh Ehsani, Leiden University  [ From “The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)” ] The human experiences surrounding the production of oil in Khuzestan took place in numerous distinct but interconnected spaces: There were the extractive places of […]

Wikipedia _ Masoud Soleimani Shojaei (born 9 June 1984) is an Iranian professional footballer of plays for Iran National football team (and also “Alqarafa F.C” in Qatar Stars League”). Mainly an attacking midfielder, he can also play as a winger or forward. After playing in Iran Pro league for two clubs including “F.C Sanatenaft” of Abadan & also […]

A lecture in Persian by Rasmus Christian Elling, Copenhagen University. Part of the UCLA CNES and Program of Iranian Studies Bilingual Lecture Series. Sunday, June 01, 2014 4:00 PM – 6:00 PM 121 Dodd Hall UCLA *LECTURE IN PERSIAN The Oil City in an Age of Jazz: Nostalgia and Modernity in Abadan, Iran We often […]

Dariush Farhang, born on 27 November 1947 in Abadan , in Iran , is a director, screenwriter and Iranian actor . Biography After primary, school and high school in “Kerman” [Kerman is a ancient province in southeast of Iran], the hometown of his mother, “Dariush Farhang” following his studies at the Faculty of Fine Arts […]

STEPHANIE CRONIN _ ABSTRACT BY SPRINGER WEBSITE: In May 1929 the operations of the Anglo-Persian Oil Company in Abadan in south-western Iran were shaken by a series of demonstrations and strikes. This sudden eruption of industrial militancy, and the rudimentary workers’ organization which tried to give it shape and leadership, was rapidly suppressed by the […]

  Authors: Yousef Ghavidel Rahimi & Mahmoud Ahmadi _  “Arabian Journal of Geosciences” published by ‘Springer’ Website. Abstract: Human and natural physical caused climate change can affect climate extremes, as well as maximum temperatures. The variations of the interannual and interdecadal hot temperatures have been studied between 1960 and 2012 (53 years) based on Abadan […]

  ACM_ as we know, in the past years, with different reasons including war and drop of social conditions, many people of Abadan had to leave his city. But most of them in various forms has Maintaining their identity as the Abadani. This not only includes people who are elderly But also is true about […]

 Credit: The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS) Sizdah-bedar is an Iranian festival tradition, celebrated in the thirteenth day of the Nowrouz (Iranian New Year). Iranians have a tradition of spending the day outdoors on the 13th day of month Farvardin. ”Sizdah-” means thirteen, and ”-bedar”, means to get rid of, i.e “getting rid of […]

Wikipedia. Houshang Golshiri (1937 – 2000) was an Iranian fiction writer, critic and editor. He was one of the first Iranian writers to use modern literary techniques, and is recognized as one of the most influential writers of Persian prose of the 20th century.[1] BIOGRAPHY Early life  Although Golshiri was born on Isfahan in 1937[2] […]

 ‘Komeil M. Jafari’ & his Partners. Background Toxocariasis is a zoonotic disease caused by Toxocaracanis and Toxocaracati Larvae in humans. Infection acquire via the ingestion of infective ova with vegetables or pica or by ingesting products of contaminated paratenic hosts [1-3]. The larva hatch in small intestine and immigrates to other organs, almost to liver […]

Touraj Atabaki – “NWO Humanities“ The workers in the Iranian oil industry organised themselves faster and on a much larger scale than anywhere else in the Middle East. ‘There are other studies of the Iranian oil industry, but these have often been commissioned by oil companies such as BP or Shell. Never before has light […]

  Razi, is an old high school (opened in 1937 until now) in Abadan. that is including the Abadan cultural symbols. this school that recently was renovated, Is located in the “sikh-line” neighborhood and is close to “statue” square. also the Razi high School in the late of 1940s’ was including the students center for […]

Wikipedia _ Amir Naderi (born 15 August 1946 in Abadan) is an Iranian film director, screenwriter, and photographer. He is best known for The Runner and Vegas: Based on a True Story.[1] Career Amir Naderi grew up in Abadan, a working-class port city in the south of Iran. He became interested in photography and cinema […]

From Wikipedia Free Encyclopedia ‘Nowruz’ ( literally “New Day”) is the name of the Iranian New Year,[27][28] also known as the Persian New Year,[29][30] which is celebrated worldwide by Iranian peoples, along with some other ethno-linguistic groups, as the beginning of the New Year. It has been celebrated for over 3,000 years in the Balkans, […]

March 25, 1951 By J. H. CARMICAL, The New York Times.  Action of both houses of the Iranian Parliament in voting to nationalize the oil industry again had focused attention on the Middle East to which the center of gravity of the world’s oil production is being shifted rapidly. Coming in the midst of negotiations […]

Wikipedia! _ The “Abadan Crisis” occurred from 1951 to 1954, after Iran nationalised the Iranian assets of the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC) and expelled Western companies from oil refineries in the city of Abadan. Prelude The AIOC was the United Kingdom’s “single largest overseas asset” and a “source of national pride” in the British post-war […]

  from Wikipedia free encyclopedia “Chahārshanbeh Suri” is a Iranian festival celebrated by all Iranians such as Persian people, Azerbaijani people, and Kurdish people. The event takes place on the eve of the last Wednesday before Iranian New Year. Loosely translated as Wednesday Light or Red Wednesday, from the word sur which means light/red in […]